Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people make up 3.3% of the nation’s population. Geographically, 62% of the Indigenous population lives outside Australia’s major cities, including 12% in areas classified as very remote. The median age for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is 23 compared to 38 for the non-Indigenous population. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are vastly overrepresented in the Australian criminal justice system, with 2,481 prisoners per 100,000 Indigenous people—15 times greater than for the non-Indigenous population.

Official government targets set for 2018 in 2008, to halve the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in child mortality, employment, and reading and numeracy, as well as closing the gap in school attendance, were not met. The target to close the gap in life expectancy by 2031 is not on track.

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, The Indigenous World 2019

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