The 2012 census estimated Rapa Nui’s (Easter Island) total population at around 5,761 across an area of 163.6 square kilometers. This estimate turned out to be flawed, and as a result has largely been nullified.1 The 2002 census, which estimated the total population at 3,765 people is therefore referenced in most calculations. That census recognized 60% of the population as indigenous Rapa Nui, while 39% were mainland Chileans with mixed decent. Easter Island’s traditional language is Rapa Nui. The 2017 projections from the Chilean Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas (INE), estimated a population of 7,750.
The rights of indigenous peoples are regulated by Law No. 19,253 of 1993 on “indigenous promotion, protection, and development.” However, that law does not meet the standards of international law regarding the indigenous peoples’ rights. Rapa Nui is covered by Chile’s ratification of ILO convention 169 in 2008, which went into effect in 2009.
International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, The Indigenous World 2019