According to the 2011 census, the indigenous nationalities (Adivasi Janajati) of Nepal comprise 36% of the total population of 26.5 million, although indigenous peoples’ organizations claim a larger figure of more than 50%. The 2011 census listed the population as belonging to 125 castes and ethnic groups, including 63 indigenous peoples; 59 castes, including 15 Dalit castes; and 3 religious groups, including Muslim groups.
The new Constitution of Nepal promulgated in 2015 denies the collective rights and aspirations for identity-based federalism of indigenous peoples, in spite of the fact that Nepal has ratified ILO Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples and passed the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) and the World Council of Indigenous Peoples (WCIP) Outcome Document. Their implementation is still wanting. The recent amendments in the laws and draft bills are not in line with the UNDRIP and ILO Convention 169.
International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, The Indigenous World 2019