While the Government of Zimbabwe does not recognise any specific groups as indigenous to the country, two peoples self-identify as such: the Tshwa (Tjwa, Tsoa, Tshwao, Cuaa) San found in western Zimbabwe, and the Doma (Vadema, Tebomvura) of Mbire District in north-central Zimbabwe. Population estimates indicate that there are 2,800 Tshwa and 1,350 Doma in Zimbabwe, approximately 0.03% of the country’s population of 14,030,368 in 2018.

There are no specific laws on indigenous peoples’ rights in Zimbabwe. However, the “Koisan” language is included in Zimbabwe’s 2013 revised Constitution as one of the 16 languages recognised in the country, and there is some awareness within government of the need for more information and improved approaches to poverty alleviation and improvement of well-being among minorities.

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, The Indigenous World 2019

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